Complete the "stages" activity in Appendix 4. Figure 2.2 illustrates the levels in the taxonomy, starting with questions for recalling information (low level) and concluding with questions for predicting and discriminating among ideas (high level). You may ask yourself, "How can I possibly ask a Preproduction or Early Production student a high-level question if the most that student can do is point or give a one-word response?" Research shows that high levels of student engagement are "a robust predictor … It may be due to travel, migration, office, curiosity, career, skill, networking, smartness, or anything. To improve her ability to ask tiered questions, a 1st grade teacher asks the school ESL teacher to demonstrate the strategy in her class during a discussion of The Three Little Pigs. Although there may be an approximate time frame for each stage of language acquisition, the length of time students spend at each level will be as varied as the students themselves. Ever since Socrates intoned “Know thyself,” we have tried to peek behind the curtain and find out how we are actually able to learn language and use it for a myriad of communicative purposes. <<70FA7C26FCD39446894D2E8D6A92FDB7>]>> 0000009029 00000 n 0000005522 00000 n Similarities between First and Second Language Acquisition 2.1 Developmental Sequences Researchers have carried out numerous studies to understand the nature of first and second language acquisition. trailer Monday through Friday 0000005588 00000 n They all require frequent practice and sustained effort. What distinguishes low-level questions from high-level ones? ASCD respects intellectual property rights and adheres to the laws governing them. questions—that is, questions that require a pointing, drawing, or circling response. 0000001847 00000 n How about Intermediate and Advanced Fluency students? Attitude and Aptitude in Second Language Acquisition and Learning 19 3. Here are some theories on the matter: To accomplish this, you will need to know each student's stage of language acquisition. As Figure 2.3 shows, the levels of thinking and the stages of second language acquisition should operate more as axes than in side-by-side alignment. or "Who has …?" 126 0 obj <>stream 101 26 Various research has been conducted into this phenomenon which has resulted in a number of hypotheses concerning the possible cause thereof. Phone Alexandria, VA 22311-1714. 101 0 obj <> endobj THE EDUCATION OF SPECIAL NEEDS groups has received increased attention worldwide in the past few decades (UNESCO, 1994; United Nations, 2007), but only recently have second language acquisition (SLA) researchers started to think about them as language learners and language users who are active participants in shaping the multilingual discourse community of our globalized world. INTRODUCTION • Grammar Translation Method • non-communicative approach that relies on reading and translation, mastery of grammatical rules and accurate writing • Audiolingual Method • non-communicative approach that involves heavy use of mimicry, imitations and drill. Address For each stage of second language acquisition, the ESL teacher asks the following types of tiered questions: Turn to the sample lesson plans in Appendix 5–8 and select the one that's most appropriate for your grade level. xref A child can learn languages which are spoken by their parents. The statements on the cards for this activity in Appendix 9 are taken from a high school science class during a plant unit. FIRST AND SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION 2. Language learning, in contrast to language acquisition, is the process whereby humans past the critical period learn second languages. What are the implications of the stages for mainstream instruction? This knowledge base will be based on research-grounded theories of second language acquisition. Figure 2.1 summarizes the five stages of language acquisition and shows some appropriate prompts and sample questions to use for each stage of second language acquisition. As teachers of second language learners, we must have a basic working knowledge base regarding the process that language learners go through to learn a second language. Slide 1: The topic for this training session is Second Language Acquisition. 0000004288 00000 n The Domain of the Conscious Grammar: The Morpheme Studies 51 5. 0000000016 00000 n The input hypothesis 20 (a) Statement of the hypothesis 20 Have you ever seen the levels of thinking from Bloom's taxonomy aligned with the stages of second language acquisition? Alexandria, VA 22311-1714. A child absorbs the language that is spoken in their environment with characteristics such as the tonal quality, the syntax, and the usages of that language. Do not mistake an ELL's limited output for an inability to think abstractly. The field of second-language acquisition is a sub-discipline of applied linguistics, but also receives research attention from a variety of other disciplines, such as psychology and education. Another reason for all teachers to gain insights into their students' stages of second language acquisition is to meet the requirements of the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act, which requires ELLs to progress in their content knowledge and in their English language proficiency. By contrast, he acquired his native language through the process of communicating with his family and community. 0000019581 00000 n Of course, questions should be tailored to each ELL's level of second language acquisition. We want to challenge their thinking and speaking abilities. Acquiring language is an unconscious process, whereas learning a second language is a conscious one (Krashen, 1982). How quickly students progress through the stages depends on many factors, including level of formal education, family background, and length of time spent in the country. The child absorbs the language that is most prevalent in the environment they live. When learning a second language, students must learn about its structure and appropriate use. Yes, you can acquire a second language. When they are interested in learning a language and they see meaningful connections to their lives, they begin to take risks to produce language, which helps them to acquire it f… This lesson describes the four characteristics of interlanguage and the five factors in the interlanguage process, along with an example for each factor. You likely use or recall Bloom's taxonomy (Bloom, Englehart, Furst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956), which provides a structure for categorizing the level of abstraction of questions. Philosophers have always been fascinated by the human linguistic ability, particularly its initial acquisition. Different shapes of lips, throat, and other parts of the vocal tract have an effect on voice quality; this is part of the individuality of each person’s voice referred to above. %PDF-1.3 %���� One way for mainstream teachers to engage their ELLs more is by asking tiered questions. 0000009168 00000 n The Monitor hypothesis 15 (a) Individual variation in Monitor use 18 4. English language learners at all stages of acquisition should be asked questions at all levels of thinking. 0000009117 00000 n To ensure that the student is being challenged and pushed to the next level, it is important to once in a while ask questions from the next level as well. Second-language acquisition assumes knowledge in a first language and encompasses the process an individual goes through as he or she learns the elements of a new language, such as vocabulary, phonological components, grammatical structures, and writing systems. 0000016760 00000 n The students have already acquired and integrated plant knowledge and are now ready to practice, review, and apply what they've learned. It is important that you tie instruction for each student to his or her particular stage of language acquisition. Students acquiring a second language progress through five predictable stages. critical reviews or articles—may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, [Facilitator:Bring out one premade game board and set of cards for each table or small group (see Appendix 9).]. CALP is Cognitive Academic Language Pr… Five Hypotheses About Second Language Acquisition 10 1. 0 0000000816 00000 n Cummins makes the distinction between two differing kinds of language proficiency. Anyone who has been around children who are learning to talk knows that the process happens in stages—first understanding, then one-word utterances, then two-word phrases, and so on. II. Instead, Lomba sta… For Early Production students, questions that require a one-word response, such as yes/no and either/or questions, are acceptable. No part of this publication—including the drawings, graphs, illustrations, or chapters, except for brief quotations in Teaching strategies in second language acquisition 3.1 Strategy 1: Analyzing characteristics of the second language learners Generally speaking, there are more effective and less effective students in classrooms for learning the second language. Second, the acquisition of literacy skills in these children depends on the relationship between the two languages 9 and the level of proficiency in the second language. Asking the tiered questions that accompany the stages of acquisition is one way to help students move to the next stage. "The process of learning a second language (L2) is characteristically non-linear and fragmentary, marked by a mixed landscape of rapid progression in certain areas but slow movement, incubation, or even permanent stagnation in others. 3. In fact, in more than half of their interactions, students did not produce any oral language; when they did, they engaged in simple recall. Challenge 3: The characteristics of learning disabilities in many ways mirror characteristics associated with second language acquisition. Three learner characteristics have consistently been found to be consequential for language learning: motivation, anxiety, and beliefs about language learning. It is concerned with the role of individual differences in second language acquisition. Students learning a second language move through five predictable stages: Preproduction, Early Production, Speech Emergence, Intermediate Fluency, and Advanced Fluency (Krashen & Terrell, 1983). x�b```�V ��1�0p,`qY`2�� �B$��T`��@�A� i�. … l.�����T�$펊S�.�9��^� _W��[email protected]����v����ZA�U��$���.`Slq �b�;)���T�Ι,�.d>��p���`Ш�#�@����A�AF���|�W���da�M�E�����I�D�kE�4.�&���p����&�+R��@�-��ʾ�t���Y����ڦxH����n�|!o����OFA׈�A%��P� khhh� �e��u�b� All rights reserved. However, this is not the case. How would you engage students across all stages of second language acquisition at all levels of thinking? It's easy to keep asking Preproduction students yes/no questions or have them respond by pointing, but the students must do more than simply recall knowledge. Over time learners, musicians and athletes receive feedback, refine … You may be asked to share your responses with the larger group. Second-language acquisition is also the scientific discipline devoted to studying that process. startxref You can use tiered questions to include all ELLs in whole-class activities or one on one to check comprehension or content learning. vqH��s�s�s�p��4��a�.���I�I����k�_�4�ܙܘJ��}�y�r�zs��)K5���:0� 6%ݲ���lE&v For some reason, many people think that students in the initial stages of acquisition can only answer low-level questions and that those in the advanced stages are more likely to answer high-level questions. 0000003371 00000 n 0000004127 00000 n We recommend that teachers ask frequent questions throughout their lessons, as doing so lets ELLs practice their new language and helps teachers assess how much of the content the ELLs understand. 0000001438 00000 n Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis When learning a second language a native-like level is hardly ever reached. Learn more about our permissions policy and submit your request online. You also want to begin asking students at this stage questions that require a phrase or short sentence. 0000008681 00000 n It is OK to sometimes ask these students questions requiring a multiple-sentence response, but it is not OK to ask them questions requiring a pointing or one-word response. Acquisition and the Critical Period hypothesis when learning a second language learners assist..., 1982 ) n't want them to get stuck at a knowledge only. Include all ELLs in whole-class activities or one on one to check comprehension content... Our permissions policy and submit your request online 1703 North Beauregard St. Alexandria, 22311-1714. All stages of language proficiency the characteristics of interlanguage and the Critical Period hypothesis when learning a language... Asked to answer questions that accompany the stages of second language acquisition 64 6 prevalent in the interlanguage,. Adoptive parents inability to think abstractly either/or questions, are acceptable get stuck at the lowest of. Teachers to engage their ELLs more is by asking tiered questions to include all ELLs in activities. At the correct level of second language acquisition or more second languages than a sentence response structure appropriate... At a knowledge level only 2.1, it is OK to ask Preproduction students `` Where is?! Concerning the possible cause thereof knowledge base will be based on research-grounded theories of second language.! Questions that accompany the stages of language acquisition or short-sentence answers, questions should be tailored to each 's. Fascinated by the human linguistic ability, particularly its initial acquisition, review, apply! A number of hypotheses concerning the possible cause thereof concerned with the role of first! Learn faster spoken by their parents Appendix 1 shows an actual matrix using both the levels of.. Our permissions policy and submit your request online 16–17. ] language learning 40 4 all! English language learners typically spend time learning vocabulary and practice pronouncing new words to dive into language learning them! Request online or her particular stage of language acquisition and language learning why should we be aware of the of... Conscious one ( Krashen, 1982 ) months, depending on the individual learner may... ( Krashen, 1982 ) as you can use tiered questions while showing 16–17. The language that is most prevalent in the environment they live mirror characteristics associated with language. Yes/No and either/or questions, you will need to know each student to his or particular! This, you will need to know each student to his or her particular stage of language acquisition all! Acquisition 64 6 we are not all responsible for content and language learning match the sample student responses at correct!, review, and apply what they 've learned a contextual, theme-based curriculum can help get students excited. Fluency or real understanding if time allows, add two more teacher to... Output for an inability to think abstractly add two more teacher strategies to each stage we are not all for... Also want to challenge their thinking and speaking abilities learning ( McREL ) activity! Session is second language acquisition, acquire the language of their biological parents, acquire the language that is prevalent... Each ELL 's limited output for an inability to think abstractly accomplish this, you can use questions! For mainstream teachers to engage their ELLs more is by asking tiered questions to include all ELLs in activities! His native language through the process of communicating with his family and community using... We are not all responsible for content and language help get students more excited to dive into language 40... Ells stuck at the lowest levels of thinking and the Critical Period hypothesis when learning second! Want them to get stuck at the lowest levels of thinking slide 1: the Morpheme Studies 51 5 proficiency. May learn one or more second languages each factor and are now to! Must learn about its structure and appropriate use fluency or real understanding comprehension or content learning content learning makes! Use 18 4 pointing, drawing, or anything is an unconscious process, along with an for! 15 ( a ) Transitional forms 14 3 from several hours to months... Of individual differences in second language acquisition and the Critical Period hypothesis when a. Are in this first learning stage space on the most suitable space the... Level only each student 's stage of language proficiency any fluency or real understanding 40 4 property rights adheres. 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Be asked to share your responses with the larger group they don t! Reading the lesson, match the sample student responses at the correct level of second acquisition... 2.1, it is OK to ask Preproduction students `` Where is …? the environment they live acquiring! Requiring phrase or short sentence may learn one or more second languages check or. Ana Lomba disagrees that second language acquisition and language address 1703 North Beauregard St. Alexandria, VA.., acquire the language with any fluency or real understanding what they 've learned fascinated by the linguistic... Been conducted into this phenomenon which has resulted in a number of hypotheses concerning the possible cause thereof in number. A contextual, theme-based curriculum can help get students more excited to dive into language learning one (,! By asking tiered questions that accompany the stages of language acquisition and athletes receive feedback refine! Practice, review, and apply what they 've learned engage students at the end to life. Learners are totally silent while they are in this first learning stage vocabulary... The taxonomy is used to examine the relationship between different characteristics of interlanguage and stages! Practice pronouncing new words policy and submit your request online are in this first learning stage don ’ normally! Language learners at all levels of thinking their ELLs more is by tiered. Copyright © 2008 by Mid-continent research for Education and learning ( McREL ) examine! In a number of hypotheses concerning the possible cause thereof whereas learning a second a... Mirror characteristics associated with second language acquisition learners typically spend time learning vocabulary and pronouncing... In self-talk, they don ’ t normally speak the language of biological! An inability to think abstractly a plant unit request online base will be based on theories... Accompany the stages of second language learners are totally silent while they are in this first learning stage mistake... Fluency or real understanding each factor it directly applies to their life, they don ’ t speak! Linguistic system created by second language acquisition implications of the stages of acquisition is one way to help students to... ( McREL ) of learning disabilities in many ways mirror characteristics associated with second language.! He acquired his native language through the process of communicating with his family and community biological,! This time, new language learners typically spend time learning vocabulary and practice pronouncing new words, will! Attitude and Aptitude in second language acquisition stuck at a knowledge level only require a one-word response, such yes/no. 1 shows an actual matrix using both the levels of thinking Beauregard St.,..., you will need to know each student to his or her particular stage language! An unconscious process, whereas learning a second language progress through five predictable stages whereas learning a second acquisition... One ( Krashen, 1982 ) their physical characteristics and whatever the language with any fluency or understanding! And integrated plant knowledge and are now ready to practice, review, apply! With his family and community acquisition and language think abstractly resulted in a number of hypotheses concerning the cause... Relationship between different characteristics of recasts and learner uptake/repair help get students excited... A ) individual variation in Monitor use 18 4 using both the levels of thinking may engage in,! A linguistic system created by second language acquisition and language makes the distinction between two differing kinds of acquisition! Infants, whatever their physical characteristics and whatever the language of their biological,! Transitional forms 14 3 course, questions that accompany the stages of language. To studying that process whereas learning a second language acquisition answers, questions requiring than! Questions while showing Slides 16–17. ] initial acquisition Statement of the adoptive parents responses.