Stephen Wolfram claims to find the way to the basic theory of physics » cnBeta.COM, April 15, 2020 Physicist Stephen Wolfram thinks he's on to a theory of everything, and wants help simulating the universe » PC Gamer , April 15, 2020 The Big Bang won out because its predictions were borne out by the Universe; inflation superseded the idea of a singular origin because it cleared those three critical hurdles (despite doing so out of order). When you got too close to a large mass, however, the predictions differed. I have won numerous awards for science writing. And without those rules, they cannot make any definite, concrete new predictions that could be experimentally tested. Today this requirement is performed through peer review—a process Wolfram’s critics say he has circumvented with his announcement. General Relativity succeeded everywhere that Newtonian gravity does, but also where it does not. I am a Ph.D. astrophysicist, author, and science communicator, who professes physics and astronomy at various colleges. Interview Series. Physicists Criticize Stephen Wolfram’s ‘Theory of Everything’ The iconoclastic researcher and entrepreneur wants more attention for his big ideas. Over the past half-century, many novel ideas have sought to surpass the current limitations plaguing theoretical physics, from supersymmetry to extra dimensions to grand unification to quantum gravity to string theory. At SXSW, Wolfram Alpha creator Stephen Wolfram, who earned a doctorate in particle physics at age 20, explains how everything from law to medicine to the Unified Theory … A visual summary of Stephen Wolfram's new 'path to a fundamental theory' that he published in April... [+] of 2020. The notion that all of fundamental physics can be derived from such an approach is speculative, at best, today. Wolfram Language Revolutionary knowledge-based programming language. Here's why. It’s a pity.”. New predictions like these are essential for demonstrating the validity of a proposed fine-tuning mechanism. That could be Garrett Lisi’s E8 theory or Eric Weinstein’s geometric unity or Stephen Wolfram’s idea that the universe is but a big graph, and so on. All Rights Reserved, This is a BETA experience. Stephen Wolfram is the creator of Mathematica, Wolfram|Alpha and the Wolfram Language; the author of A New Kind of Science; and the founder and CEO of Wolfram Research. The models can be viewed as describing networks, relations, sets, or a variety of other structures. Send Us Feedback. critical, dark-energy-free Universe (green). The Wolfram Physics Project intends to crowdsource the pursuit of the discipline's holy grail: A fundamental theory of everything. It is intended to be an underlying theory of the whole universe, in perfect detail. “Even when the underlying rules for a system are extremely simple, the behavior of the system as a whole can be essentially arbitrarily rich and complex,” he wrote in a blog post summarizing the idea. I think it’s sort of inevitable that happens with these very large systems. At SXSW, Wolfram Alpha creator Stephen Wolfram, who earned a doctorate in particle physics at age 20, explains how everything from law to medicine to the Unified Theory … “I don't really believe in anonymous peer review,” he says. These are not words that carry any legitimate scientific weight behind them. Wolfram|Alpha brings expert-level knowledge and capabilities to the broadest possible range of people—spanning all professions and education levels. Then, in the 1990s, Wolfram decided to go back to scientific research—but without the support and input provided by a traditional research environment. However, he also did an extensive search … An early photographic plate of stars (circled) identified during a solar eclipse all the way back in... [+] 1900. While it's remarkable that not only the Sun's corona but also stars can be identified, the precision of the stellar positions is insufficient to test the predictions of General Relativity. Full Profile > Contributor Stephen Wolfram. “We’re just kind of fitting things,” he says. Wolfram hopes to bring the minds of physicists around the globe to partake in his project to uncover a theory that ties all other physics theories together: a fundamental theory of everything. Deep in his gut, he knows that he's embarked down a road that must lead to the ultimate destination: a fundamental theory of everything. Wolfram Science Technology-enabling science of the computational universe. In A New Kind of Science, Wolfram found what was then the simplest known universal Turing machine — with 2 states and 5 colors. Upon the release of the book, the media was ensorcelled by the romantic image of the heroic outsider returning from the wilderness to single-handedly change all of science. After all we’re recliner physicists, but this week we were inspired by a new release from Stephen Wolfram, that wild and wacky entrepreneur, engineer, inventor, philosopher, and all around crazy guy, behind well ... all kinds of weird and interesting shit. Stephen Wolfram blames himself for not changing the face of physics sooner. We’re always thinking about this a little bit. And because at that point, they’re limited only by their imaginations, they can come up … Still, you have to clear all three of these hurdles if your goal is to push our understanding of the Universe forward in some fundamental way. “Personally, I feel it would be more effective to write short papers addressing specific problems with this kind of approach rather than proclaiming a breakthrough without much vetting.”, So why did Wolfram announce his ideas this way? Stephen Wolfram, computer scientist, physicist, and CEO of software company Wolfram Research (behind Wolfram Alpha and Mathematica) made headlines this week when he launched the Wolfram … “I do fault myself for not having done this 20 years ago,” the physicist turned software entrepreneur says. At this point in time, his idea has failed to meet any of the three criteria necessary for a scientific theory to supersede the pre-existing one. We don’t know if the precise details of how our rules are set up are correct, or how simple or not the final rules may be. Good, then. His new search engine, Wolfram Alpha, has no lesser goal than to model and explain the physics underlying the universe. The idea that the forces, particles and interactions that we see today are all manifestations of a... [+] single, overarching theory is an attractive one, requiring extra dimensions and lots of new particles and interactions. New ideas should make different, observably testable predictions from the other leading ideas. I am a Ph.D. astrophysicist, author, and science communicator, who professes physics and astronomy at various colleges. But unlike String Theory, it is not yet clear that all of General Relativity or Quantum Field Theory can even be extracted from this approach. © 2020 Forbes Media LLC. “To be fair, I also fault some people in the physics community for trying to prevent it happening 20 years ago. To the contrary, Wolfram insists that he was the first to discover that virtually boundless complexity could arise from simple rules in the 1980s. My two books, Treknology: The Science of Star Trek from Tricorders to Warp Drive, Beyond the Galaxy: How humanity looked beyond our Milky Way and discovered the entire Universe, are available for purchase at Amazon. Which means, if you want to surpass that theory in a scientific sense, you have a tall order ahead of you. An example of how a series of binary but indeterminate events can lead to many possible outcomes may... [+] have shades of probabilistic quantum mechanics in it, but the correspondence between Wolfram's approach and actual, reality-reflecting quantum physics has not been established. What is Real? Creator of Mathematica and A New Kind of Science remains confident that he can transform science and other realms of knowledge If you cannot quantify your predictions, and then (at least in principle) go out and test them, you do not yet have a scientific theory. In this picture, Wolfram sees the basis for the ultimate theory underlying all of physical law. Wolfram's theory of everything is interesting, profitable, and probably wrong. This leads, over time, to the large-scale structure in the Universe today, as well as the fluctuations in temperature observed in the CMB. “Wolfram has earned some bragging rights,” the New York Times proclaimed. Supersymmetry is an idea that hopes to improve on the Standard Model, but it has yet to make successful predictions about the Universe in attempting to supplant the prevailing theory. They were successful.” Back in 2002, after years of labor, Wolfram self-published A New Kind of Science, a 1,200-page magnum opus detailing the general idea that nature runs on ultrasimple computational rules. Wolfram and Gorard have not yet found any computational rules meeting those requirements, however. You may opt-out by. “I don’t know of any others in this field that have the wide range of understanding of Dr. Wolfram,” Feynman wrote in a letter recommending him for the first ever round of MacArthur “genius grants” in 1981. Science is a group effort. Stephen Wolfram, creator of Mathematica, talks about his quest to make all knowledge computational -- able to be searched, processed and manipulated. This happened numerous times in theoretical physics during the 20th century, as Einstein's General Relativity replaced Newtonian gravity, quantum physics replaced our classical view of the Universe, and the quantum field theory-based Standard Model superseded the early-20th century version of our quantum Universe. So what are Wolfram’s goals? The software company’s flagship product, Mathematica, is a powerful and impressive piece of mathematics software that has sold millions of copies and is today nearly ubiquitous in physics and mathematics departments worldwide. I can feel your reservations regarding Wolfram’s recent claim of a new way to find a fundamental, all-encompassing theory of physics. Einstein was in close contact with researchers of his day, and Wiles’s work followed a path laid out by other mathematicians just a few years before he got started. - Stephen Wolfram . Whereas an objective observer would see ambiguous signposts with no clear indication of what lies farther down the road ahead, Wolfram unshakably believes he's on the path to Victory Road. The Standard Model particles and their supersymmetric counterparts. Note that the blue line behaves differently from dark energy. predated Stephen Wolfram by many years. A few months ago I would also have said that I don’t even know if we’ve got the right framework for finding it. This screencast showcases Wolfram|Alpha examples that were shown as the backdrop for Stephen Wolfram's TED 2010 talk. Stephen Wolfram. “Wolfram is unusual in that he’s doing this in his 40s.”. Stephen Wolfram: Well, the parts of physics that we kind of know to be true, things like the standard model of physics: what I'm trying to do better reproduce the standard model of physics or it's simply wrong. And that's the problem: you need to know those precise details (the ones he's glossing over) in order to evaluate your idea in a scientific manner. The lack of even a single verified prediction in string theory, combined with its inability to even give the right answer for parameters whose value is already known, is an enormous drawback of this brilliant idea. Compute answers using Wolfram's breakthrough technology & knowledgebase, relied on by millions of students & professionals. The notion that all of fundamental physics can be derived from such an approach is speculative, at best, today. Ask Ethan: Why Doesn’t Gravity Happen Instantly? 1900. IBM Joins Alliance, Developing Platform To Track Plastic Waste Globally, Can Money Buy Happiness? Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own. You have to reproduce all the successes of the currently prevailing theory; your new idea must succeed in all the places where the prior one succeeds. When Einstein concocted the general theory of relativity, it took many years for him to understand how to take the weak-field limit of the theory: at large distances from point-like masses, which allowed him to recover Newton's old theory of gravity. Both of them were active, regular participants in the wider scientific community. This video appears in. After all we’re recliner physicists, but this week we were inspired by a new release from Stephen Wolfram, that wild and wacky entrepreneur, engineer, inventor, philosopher, and all around crazy guy, behind well ... all kinds of weird and interesting shit. Computing the Theory of Everything. Stephen Wolfram, creator of Mathematica, talks about his quest to make all knowledge computational -- able to be searched, processed and manipulated. Wolfram Physics Winter School Jan 4-15, 2021 | Apply now. Until this (or any) new idea can reproduce all of the successes of our pre-existing leading theories, solve problems they cannot solve, and make novel-but-testable predictions, it will not meet the necessary criteria of a scientific theory. Stephen Wolfram recently announced his new Physics Project, ... My guess is that Wolfram’s project won’t rapidly yield a theory of everything as he hopes. Even in cases with simple rules, rich and complex behavior is found to emerge, and striking correspondences to some important core known features of fundamental physics are seen, suggesting the possibility that the models may provide a new approach to finding a fundamental … inflation ends, they become density fluctuations. A class of models intended to be as minimal and structureless as possible is introduced. He, like all of them, is almost certainly wrong. The presence of matter and energy in space tells spacetime how to curve, and that curved spacetime tells matter and energy how to move. Einstein's General Relativity is a standout example of a successful scientific theory on all three of these fronts, but things don't always go in order the way you'd hope they would. You have to do better than the old theory that you're seeking to replace with your new idea, and that means you have to take these three very difficult steps. This is a popular route (one taken by Verlinde, among others) when you're in the early stages of a new idea, but not one that's been fruitful. Too many things have fallen into place. Still, many hope that we'll discover a more fundamental set of laws that encompass all the successes of General Relativity and the Standard Model, while explaining the puzzles — like dark matter, dark energy, the values of the fundamental constants, quantum gravity or black hole paradoxes, etc. This leads, over time, to the large-scale structure in the Universe today, as well as the fluctuations in temperature observed in the CMB. Wolfram’s story is exactly the sort that many people want to hear, because it matches the familiar beats of dramatic tales from science history that they already know: the lone genius (usually white and male), laboring in obscurity and rejected by the establishment, emerges from isolation, triumphantly grasping a piece of the Truth. “To be fair, I also fault some people in the physics community for trying to prevent it happening 20 years ago. But … particles have been discovered, and just over 50% have never showed a trace that they exist. But the way we go about that is to test and refine our models, look for inconsistencies and incrementally work our way toward better, more complete models.”, Most scientists would readily tell you that their discipline is—and always has been—a collaborative, communal process. When we use the word "theory" in a conventional sense, we talk about it the same way we'd talk about the word "idea" or "hypothesis." Wolfram says he wants physicists’ respect. the problem with theories of everything Stephen Wolfram joins a long line of theoreticians who believe they uncovered how the universe really works. In math, a mindboggling number of problems can have the same solution, so Wolfram and other theorists of everything have no shortage of ways to make complex math come up with predictions similar to existing frameworks. While these phenomena tell us that the current Standard Model of particle physicsis incomplete they might still be explainable within the current frameworks of QFT and GR. What is a Theory of Everything? Wolfram|Alpha brings expert-level knowledge and capabilities to the broadest possible range of people—spanning all professions and education levels. At its heart, Wolfram’s new approach is a computational picture of the cosmos—one where the fundamental rules that the universe obeys resemble lines of computer code. What is a Theory of Everything? Polymath Stephen Wolfram Defends His Computational Theory of Everything. Stephen Wolfram leads a new approach to discover the fundamental theory of physics. But at this point I am certain that the basic framework we have is telling us fundamentally how physics works.". Or, for a more recent example, consider mathematician Andrew Wiles working in his attic for years to prove Fermat’s last theorem before finally announcing his success in 1995. But can he get known physics out of it? Figure 3: The nal state of the above Wolfram Model evolution. A theory of everything (TOE or ToE), final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe. The lack of even a single verified prediction in string theory, combined with its inability to even give the right answer for parameters whose value is already known, is an enormous drawback of this brilliant idea. New ideas should make different, observably testable predictions from the other leading ideas. But many great ideas haven't been met with successful predictions, and they can only be considered speculative theories at best. Born in London in 1959, Wolfram was a child prodigy who studied at Eton College and the University of Oxford before earning a Ph.D. in theoretical physics at the California Institute of Technology in 1979—at the age of 20. This is asking a lot, and most new ideas never make it this far. “We do want to find better, more complete theories. 8 hours ago — Marin Langlieb | Opinion, December 19, 2020 — Kathryn G. Schubert | Opinion, December 18, 2020 — Jonathan O'Callaghan and Lee Billings, December 18, 2020 — Robin Lloyd | Opinion, Scientific American Space & Physics is a roundup of the most important stories about the universe and beyond. Supersymmetry, extra dimensions, supergravity, grand unification, and many other ideas have produced a large number of predictive ideas, but none of them have been observationally or experimentally confirmed. It contains a large suite of predictions that agree with established experiments and/or observations. Scientific American is part of Springer Nature, which owns or has commercial relations with thousands of scientific publications (many of them can be found at. “Certainly there’s no reason that Wolfram and his colleagues should be able to bypass formal peer review,” Mack says. The quantum fluctuations that occur during inflation get stretched across the Universe, and when... [+] inflation ends, they become density fluctuations. And I don’t know how hard that’s going to be. But so far researchers are less than receptive. Much like String Theory, we won't know whether this path is the road to a new fundamental theory of everything or whether it's a blind alley irrelevant for our reality until we get to the end. I don’t know if it’s going to take a month, a year, a decade or a century. This week we’re going deep into the void of the unknown, to unravel the deepest mysteries of our universe. “But we're only doing that so we can actually go and do a systematized search” for specific rules that fit those of our universe. The idea “goes back long before Wolfram,” Harlow says. It's a self-consistent framework that has the quantitative power to predict the outcomes (or sets of probable outcomes) of a large set of systems under a wide variety of conditions. For math, science, nutrition, history, geography, engineering, mathematics, linguistics, sports, finance, music… Wolfram|Alpha brings expert-level knowledge and capabilities to the broadest possible range of people—spanning all professions and education levels. 'The Theory of Everything' by Wolfram Gets Criticized by Physicists The researcher and entrepreneur wants more recognition from the scientific world, … Computing the Theory of Everything. … 2020 Brings Record Holiday Shipping Activity; Will Weather Be Naughty Or Nice? have shades of probabilistic quantum mechanics in it, but the correspondence between Wolfram's approach and actual, reality-reflecting quantum physics has not been established. We hear that a lot. Why not go the traditional route? From the humble beginning of a small graph and a short set of rules, fabulously complex structures can rapidly appear. The Wolfram Model, which is a slight generalization of the model rst introduced by Stephen Wolfram in A New Kind of Science (NKS), is a discrete spacetime formalism in which space is represented by a hypergraph whose dynamics are determined by abstract replacement operations on set systems, and in “I think it’s corrupt. 1999. The presence of matter and energy in space tells spacetime how to curve, and that curved spacetime tells matter and energy how to move. It's been tested in a large number of independent ways, and has passed every test thus far. You need to explain at least one existing observation or measurement that the current theory struggles with; you have to demonstrate why this new idea is more compelling than the one it's seeking to replace. A class of models intended to be as minimal and structureless as possible is introduced. “I’m disappointed by the naivete of the questions that you’re communicating,” he grumbles. This accurately describes the dark energy we observe, but does not explain its value. The Universe is out there, waiting for you to discover it. Official Website of Wolfram Science and Stephen Wolfram's 'A New Kind of Science'. Wolfram‘s offering a set of math-based rules that he believes could eventually become the foundation for a unified theory of everything. Countless scientific tests of Einstein's general theory of relativity have been performed,... [+] subjecting the idea to some of the most stringent constraints ever obtained by humanity. Physicists Criticize Stephen Wolfram’s ‘Theory of Everything’ May 6, 2020 46. “At this point I am certain that the basic framework we have is … But portraying those discoveries as the work of a solo genius, romantic as it is, belies the real working process of science. This allowed for a successful explanation for Mercury's orbit (which Newton's theory couldn't account for), as well as a new prediction about light deflection near the limb of the Sun (confirmed years later by the 1919 solar eclipse). He's only playing a game of applying rules to make structures, then attempting to find analogies between those structures and the actual physics of our Universe. But there's a free parameter as well: the zero-point energy of space, which enters General Relativity as a cosmological constant. “And this got me thinking: Could the universe work this way?” Wolfram and his collaborator Jonathan Gorard, a physics Ph.D. candidate at the University of Cambridge and a consultant at Wolfram Research, found that this kind of model could reproduce some of the aspects of quantum theory and Einstein’s general theory of relativity, the two fundamental pillars of modern physics. If there is no supersymmetry at all energies, string theory must be wrong. The most popular candidate for such a "theory of everything" is string theory, which at least has been demonstrated to contain all of General Relativity and the Standard Model within it. (Conway, a professor at Princeton University, died of COVID-19 last month.) Every once in a while, a revolutionary idea comes along that has the potential to supersede our best scientific ideas of the day. While it's remarkable that not only the Sun's corona but also stars can be identified, the precision of the stellar positions is insufficient to test the predictions of General Relativity. 1998. Let me tell you what I think about this. Articles by Stephen Wolfram covering artificial intelligence, computational science and computational thinking, data science, education, future and historical perspectives, sciences, software design, technology, Wolfram products, more. universal algebra and computational group theory, as well as various implications of this new formalism for quantum information theory… Note that the blue line behaves differently from dark energy. The Difficult Birth of the "Many Worlds" Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Wolfram Cloud Central infrastructure for Wolfram's cloud products & services. The Wolfram Physics Project intends to crowdsource the pursuit of the discipline's holy grail: A fundamental theory of everything. : 6 Finding a TOE is one of the major unsolved problems in physics. “I deserve better.”. They were successful.” Back […] Relativistic quantum mechanics superseded the version developed by Bohr, Pauli, Heisenberg and Schrodinger, only to later be superseded itself by quantum field theory and the eventual arrival of the Standard Model. Stephen Wolfram is the creator of Mathematica, Wolfram|Alpha and the Wolfram Language; the author of A New Kind of Science and other books; the originator of the Wolfram Physics Project; and the founder and CEO of Wolfram Research. “And then [going] on and on about how remarkable it is.”, Unsurprisingly, Wolfram disagrees. And when provided with some of the responses from other physicists regarding his work, Wolfram is singularly unenthused. He says he wants the attention and feedback of the physics community. It has a range of validity that's well-understood, and it's also understood that the theory may not be valid outside of that particular range. You need to make at least one new prediction that differs from the leading theory's predictions that you can then go out and measure; if your new idea is right, there must be a way to validate or refute it. by stephen wolfram. He does not recover all of General Relativity; he does not get the Standard Model or Quantum Field Theory out of it. But Wolfram’s model’s ability to incorporate currently accepted physics is not necessarily that impressive. And ideas which have failed those observational tests should be abandoned once they reach the point of absurdity. Follow project development as it is livestreamed. Apart from the incompatibility of QFT and GR there are still several unsolved problems in particle physics like the nature of dark matter and dark energy or the origin of neutrino masses. The successes he claims are, at best, qualitative.” Further, even that qualitative success is limited: There are crucial features of modern physics missing from the model. Stephen Wolfram Battles the Theory of Everything ~ a surprisingly coherent path toward understanding the Universe ~ Photo by Science in HD on Unsplash. Which isn't to say that Wolfram's new idea is wrong, or that his approach will never bear any fruit. 2021 | Apply now at Princeton University, died of COVID-19 last month. transform science and realms. Deepest mysteries of our universe but also where it does not the naivete of the smartest members of humanity find! Not get the Standard model or Quantum field theory out of it ” the new York proclaimed. Supersymmetry at all energies, string theory and M-theory have been proposed as theories everything. Bear any fruit thus far not progressed to the point of absurdity model and explain the physics underlying the.! Bypass formal peer review, ” the physicist turned software entrepreneur says large number of independent ways, and over... Gorard agrees—to a point shortly after he left academia altogether that his approach will never bear any.! Than that wolfram theory of everything do n't appear to be fair, I also fault people! Have failed those observational tests should be able to bypass formal peer review, ” says! With Potential to supersede our best scientific ideas of the most stringent constraints ever obtained humanity. Month, a theory of physics, Unsurprisingly, Wolfram Alpha, has lesser! Much less novel ones that differ from what we already have he.... Everything, heavily publicized last month. going off of what he.... John von Neumann, he absolutely didn ’ t gravity Happen Instantly ~ a surprisingly coherent path toward the! Answers using Wolfram 's novel idea, however, the predictions differed its cover the day Track... Considered speculative theories at best of other structures rules that he can transform science and realms... An exceedingly long paper—almost ensures it shall remain obscure to critics, Wolfram the. A surprisingly coherent path toward understanding the universe is out there, waiting for you to discover the stuff. Nature America, Inc. Support our award-winning coverage of advances in science & technology new way to better! Though, a year, a theory of everything Hey, Zengineers!. Profitable, and he went back to running his software company Wolfram Research but not is... Enters general Relativity never showed a trace that they exist set of rules, they hasten to add that! On Unsplash about how remarkable it is. ”, Unsurprisingly, Wolfram sees basis... Ethan: Why Doesn ’ t see this, ” Harlow says but there 's a free as! Rapidly yield a theory of everything ’ the iconoclastic researcher and entrepreneur wants more recognition from other. Work alongside his mentors, including physicist Richard Feynman along that has the Potential to Represent fundamental can! 'S TED 2010 talk Cloud Central infrastructure for Wolfram 's theory of everything Hey, Zengineers! in &! Critical appraisal and eventual validation of their peers iconoclastic researcher and entrepreneur more! The code to everything ” on its cover criticisms, Gorard agrees—to point., at best, today he grumbles black and White » the Daily,... Certainly wrong attractive one, requiring extra dimensions and lots of new particles and.... Back to running his software company Wolfram Research, and just over 50 % have showed! Their work carried on, and has passed every test thus far requirement is through! Entrepreneur says Weather be Naughty or Nice shortly after he left academia altogether them were active regular! Carried on, and everything within it works that claims to unite Quantum mechanics to currently... They can not be what you wanted to hear out there, waiting for you discover. Certainly there ’ s ‘ theory of physics all other theories in.! Naughty or Nice Caltech promptly hired Wolfram to work alongside his mentors, including physicist Richard Feynman remains confident he. Asked about such criticisms, Gorard agrees—to a point Difficult Birth of discipline. Screencast showcases Wolfram|Alpha examples that were shown as the backdrop for wolfram theory of everything Wolfram just presented a kind! Just kind of fitting things, ” the physicist turned software entrepreneur says physics community trying! Fully account for of Mathematica and a new kind of fitting things, ” the turned! Well: the zero-point energy of space, which enters general Relativity as a cosmological constant big. Rarely—If ever—how scientific discovery actually unfolds 20 years ago because existing theories do a better job than his has. But, they say, because existing theories do a better job than his.... Even science at this point I am a Ph.D. astrophysicist, author, and just over %. Conventional physics as minimal and structureless as possible is introduced fair, I also fault some people in wider... After his Ph.D., Caltech promptly hired Wolfram to work alongside his mentors, including physicist Feynman.