Although white grubs can be a problem every year, the most serious damage occurs in regular three year cycles. Photograph by James Castner, University of Florida. Photograph by Paul M. Choate, University of Florida. These are the most common in New England. Adults:May beetles are about 12 to 25 mm long. In late March and April, grubs move back up to the surface of the soil. Grubs feed close to the surface of the lawn and are most vulnerable to chemical control with pesticides at this time. Phyllophaga spp. Some, such as the green June beetle, are more brightly colored. Grub is a term used most often to refer to the larval stage of one of three beetle species: the European chafer, June beetle and Japanese beetle. Larvae are white with a C-shaped body, brown head, and three pairs of legs. This is the stage that lets them molt from grubs to adult beetles. Adults bury themselves under the dirt during the day, reports the University of Missouri. June beetle larvae, called white grubs, are about 25 mm (1 inch) long and live in the soil. Grubs begin to feed again, this time more aggressively. These grubs then form oval earthen cells and pupate. Photograph by John L. Capinera, University of Florida. Larvae feed on plant roots, carrion, or dung, depending on the type of scarab. The larvae feed on the ground and pupate in the grub cell where they stay over the winter. The ideal conditions are green healthy, irrigated lawns. The heavy-bodied June beetles vary from 12 to 25 mm (0.5 to 1 inch) and have shiny wing covers (elytra). Plan the perfect garden with our interactive tool →, University of Illinois Extension: White Grubs in Lawns, Cornell University: A Grub's Life: Egg to Beetle, University of Missouri Extension: White Grubs in the Lawn. The worm-like larvae form the pupa or cocoon as it often called, then lay dormant. The egg, larva, and pupa life cycle stages develop underground and unless soil is removed or dug into, these life stages will not be seen. WM. Fortunately, once you’ve identified the problem, you can get rid of June bugs in both their larval and adult stages, often without costly chemical insecticides. Jaques HE. Once larvae have overwintered, they move again to the surface for a brief feeding period before becoming a fully developed adult in September. The greatest damage to crops occurs the year after the appearance of the adults. Adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman. Pupa: The length of the pupae varies from 20 to 24 mm long. The greatest amount of damage occurs as the larvae move near the soil surface to feed on the roots of the plants. 1991. June bug larva stage The grubs will grow to about 40 mm (1.6 in) and are white with a brownish-black head and brown spiracles along the sides of the body. The last abdominal segment is clear, allowing dark digested material to be seen. Most adults are yellow to dark reddish-brown to black, robust, oblong, glossy beetles. The most commonly encountered white grubs are the larvae of June bugs, European Chafers, Masked Chafers, Billbugs, Oriental Beetles and Japanese Beetles. The female will lay from 60-75 eggs underground. New York. All Rights Reserved. For this cultural practice to be effective, plowing must occur before the grubs migrate below the plow depth. (no longer available online). Figure 4. The dorsal segments are flattened and extend to the back and sides, like overlapping plates. Immature Insects (Volume 2). During the larval portion of their life cycle, June bugs go through three separate instars, or stages. They feed on foliage and flowers at night, sometimes causing considerable damage. June bug larvae are small white grubs with brown heads. Metcalf RL, Metcalf RA. Because the grubs have destroyed the roots the grass pulls back easily. As they grow, they feed on the roots of the grass, causing large patches, browning and otherwise ruining the appearance of the lawn grass. 1993. … Larvae are characteristically C-shaped with a white body and tan to brown head. Insect Pests of Farm, Garden, and Orchard. Fortunately, there are just a few basic larval types and they are relatively easy to recognize. The common life cycle of the more destructive and abundant of these beetles extends over three years. pp. The fully grown larva color is glassy yellowish white shading toward green or blue at the head and tail. True white grubs are the larvae of May beetles (also called June Beetles) found in the genus Phyllophaga, of which there are over 100 different species. The beetles overwinter in the soil, emerging the following year in May or June when feeding, mating, and egg-laying take place. Share it! The grubs have excessively high appetites and feed constantly. At the second instar larvae burrow into the soil. In late June or early July, according to Cornell University, beetles begin to leave the ground and feed on other bugs and plants. During the years of heavy May beetle infestation, deep-rooted legumes, such as alfalfa or clovers, should be planted. Topics covered include biology of the bug, lawn grub damage and control of white grubs (the name used to cover the larval stages of destructive beetles such as June Beetles, Japanese Beetles, Chafers and others.) Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. Dubuque, Iowa. They grow exponentially and molt twice before moving on to the next stage of their life cycle. During this stage, the larva begin to take the shape of the adult beetle. As an adult, I feed at night and eat vegetation, usually the leaves from trees and bushes. Woodruff RE, Beck BM. Larvae are white with a C-shaped body, brown head, and three pairs of legs. Grubs feed close to the surface of the lawn and are most vulnerable to chemical control with pesticides at this time. Adults: May beetles are about 12 to 25 mm long. Scotts GrubEx, 5,000-sq ft against Larvae. The larval stage is the most destructive stage of the insects. The May or June beetles (genus. 1989.The Scarab Beetles of Florida (USA): (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Part II. Lawn grubs are a common pest of the home lawn. As they grow and feed in July, the females begin laying a series of 60 eggs under the soil. Davidson RH, Lyon WF. Most adults are yellow to dark reddish-brown to black, robust, oblong, glossy beetles. However, the distribution of individual species usually is more restricted. Damage to the lawn is not easily recognized at this stage. 241. The last larval stage remains in the soil from the fall through spring. About 75% of all insect species go through the four stages of complete metamorphosis - egg, larva, pupa, and adult. June bugs are commonly seen in many areas in the United States, as well as other regions of the world which facilitate their living conditions. They are small, spherical, pearly white eggs that darken just before hatching. Late spring or early autumn plowing destroys many larvae, pupae, and adults in the soil and also exposes the insects to predators, such as birds and skunks. If you want to attract wildlife to your yard, … The larval stage persists for two to three years. Most beetles pass through 3 – 5 stages during the larval period and some can even have up to 30 stages whereas other beetles can have only 1 stage as larvae. Figure 7. Rolston LH, Barlow T. 1980. Adults are medium to dark brown. More than 200 species of insect pests from 100 insect families are susceptible to these insect predators. Adults emerge the following spring. Learn which plants thrive in your Hardiness Zone with our new interactive map! A species of bee fly, Exoprosopa fasciata, is also a parasite of this genera. Adult Beetle. A pyrgotid fly, a natural enemy of white grubs, Phyllophaga spp. The larva is a specialized feeding stage that looks very different from the adult. Life Cycle of the European Chafer Beetle. The Phyllophaga life cycles vary somewhat because some species complete their growth in one year, while others require as much as four years. North Carolina Corn Information. The European chafer beetle originated in continental Europe but is now an invasive species found in temperate climates in North America, where they are often called June bugs. During late spring and early summer, the overwintering generation of beetles dies. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 19: 92-94. After two to three weeks, grubs hatch. (1998). In 3 to 4 weeks, small grubs (larvae) hatch from eggs and develop through three stages (instars), with the first two stages lasting about 3 weeks. The next autumn the larvae again migrate deep into the soil to overwinter, returning near the soil surface the following spring to feed on plant roots until they are fully grown in late spring. Adults do not feed on turfgrasses; however, in their larval stage, they tunnel through the soil and feed on plant roots. Firefly larvae produce light and are sometimes called glowworms. Can the June bug insect be dealt with entirely naturally? Larvae develop through 3 larval stages (instars) where they grow then shed their exoskeleton (a process known as moulting) at each stage. Damage to the lawn is not easily recognized at this stage. The egg hatches and the fly larva enters the body cavity of the beetle, feeding on and eventually killing the host before pupating. Figure 8. These stages are marked by the grub molting, or shedding its outer skin after growing a new one underneath. Grubs are the larval stage of the common May or June beetle or the Southern masked chafer. White grubs and their allies: a study of North American scarabaeoid larvae. Some, such as the green June beetle, are more brightly colored. and related insects are distributed throughout the United States and Canada. Eggs: Eggs are usually 1.5 to 3 mm in diameter and found encased in soil aggregates. Photograph by John L. Capinera, University of Florida. Copyright Leaf Group Ltd. // Leaf Group Lifestyle. Phyllophaga larvae and other larvae of the family Scarabaeidae are often referred to as white grubs, including larvae of the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman), annual white grubs (Cyclocephala spp. The June Bug is a nocturnal beetle that hatches from a larvae in the springtime of the year. Females can lay up to 75 eggs in their short adult life. They have extremely fast metabolisms, and eat nearly constantly. June bugs’ larvae are whitish, C-shaped grubs that live underground. Photograph by James Castner, University of Florida. These products are available commercially. 1966. White grubs are the slug-like larval stage of many insects. This stage of the beetle life cycle is where the greatest change in form takes place. 378-385. After about 18 days, the eggs hatch out and the newly hatched larvae spend the next nine months going through three stages of larval growth and finally emerge in the spring as a newly hatched June bug. White grub, Phyllophaga spp., infected with Cordyceps fungus. Larval June bugs feed in warm summers and under the soil during winter. During their last larval instar the June bugs dig deep into the soil to shield themselves from freezing winter temperatures. The Life Cycle of Scarabs Like all beetles, scarabs undergo complete metamorphosis with four stages of development: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Lawn grubs are a common pest of the home lawn. This commonly happens in the southern region allowing for two cycles to progress annually. It is in the grub stage that these insects do the most damage by feeding on grass roots causing the grass to die. Grubs feed now for between four and six months. Photograph by Jim Kalisch, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. This results in drought susceptibility and the ability to easily pull the grass away from the soil surface. After feeding for several weeks, they lay their eggs in the ground. Larvae vary in size with age and species. Figure 5. Typical white grub of the genus Phyllophaga. White grubs. Some species of larvae need more than one year to develop, so they hibernate in the soil again once the weather drops in the autumn. Dubuque, Iowa. Beneficial nematodes seek out and kill all stages of harmful soil-dwelling insects. 1951. In late June or early July, according to Cornell University, beetles begin to leave the ground and feed on other bugs and plants. No-tillage or reduced tillage crop management encourages grub populations. IDENTIFICATION: White grubs are the larval stage of May or June beetles. Insecticide control of a white grub. The time period to reach adulthood from the pupal stage varies dramatically among different types of beetles. Two parallel rows of spines seen on the underside of the last abdominal segment distinguish true white grubs from similar-looking larvae. Grubs often feed into August, when they change into their second stage of growth. This product’s active ingredient is chlorantraniliprole. Stehr FW. Bionomics and control of root feeding insect pests: grubs and billbugs. It's during this period when the larvae pupate. The hind portion of the abdomen is slightly enlarged and appears darker due to the soil particles showing through the body wall. The large grubs of the chafer feed on the roots of both wild and cultivated cool-latitude grasses, which has made them a critter-non-grata on North American lawns. Green June beetles can be found in the eastern part of the United States. Now after 4-8 weeks of chomping away under ground, the larvae will pupate. Grubs hibernate during this stage and are impossible to control at this time due to their depth. Two parallel rows of spines seen on the undersi… The outer skin of the grub is thicker than in the fall, making chemical control at this time nearly impossible. pp. The adult beetles emerge from the pupal stage a few weeks later, but they do not leave the ground. Grubs feed close to the surface of the lawn and are most vulnerable to chemical control with pesticides at this time. The year following heavy flights of May beetles, planting corn or potatoes should be avoided in fields that were previously under sod or grass. pp. Larva (Larval Stage) As with many beetles, lightning bug larvae look somewhat wormlike. My Home: Found all over North America, I hide in trees during the day. Natural enemies that control these white grubs include parasitic wasps and flies in the genera Tiphia and Myzinum (Hymenoptera: Tiphiidae), and Pelecinus polyturator Drury (Hymenoptera: Pelecinidae), and the fly, Pyrgota undata (Diptera: Pyrgotidae). The young beetle will live under the soil until the following spring to develop further before emerging in June or July to lay eggs once more, starting the life cycle over again. How to Know the Beetles. Grubs often feed into August, when they change into their second stage of growth. June Bug Grubs. Adult green June beetle, Cotinis nitida Linnaeus. Figure 3. Eggs hatch about three weeks later into young larvae that feed upon roots and decaying vegetation throughout the summer and, in autumn, migrate downward (to a depth of up to 1.5 meters) and remain inactive until the following spring. Adult beetles emerge from the ground at the end of spring or start of summer. The adults mate in the evening and, at dawn, females return to the ground to deposit 15 to 20 eggs, 1 to 8 inches deep in the soil. Grubs are vulnerable to the changing weather and die if caught by an unexpected frost. Over the course of the next two years, larvae pass through three stages (called instars) becoming larger and more destructive with each stage. The hind portion of the abdomen is slightly enlarged and appears darker due to the soil particles showing through the body wall. Inoculating the soil with bacterial spores of Bacillus popilliae Dutky and Bacillus lentimorbus Dutky aids in reducing populations. Meanwhile, the grubs or larvae that started life early in spring begin to emerge as lawn foraging beetles. Once ready, the grubs dig down into the soil to below the frost line, where they go into a third stage of life. They root around just below the surface, eating the roots of grass and other plants as they grow. After developing into the third and final instar stage, fully mature larvae are typically 25 mm in length and ready to pupate. During the first stage of growth the grubs feed on the roots of the grass in the lawn. Figure 6. In spring and early summer, white grubs pupate 3 to 6 inches deep in the soil. Figure 2. At the end of summer during its final instar, the grub digs deep into the soil so it is protected from cold weather. Pest problems? After hatching, the first instar is 5mm long. Pupa. ), and the green June beetle (Cotinis nitida Linnaeus). Figure 1. Typical June beetle, adult of white grub, of the genus Phyllophaga. In the southern United States, the name green June beetle is applied to a similar green-and-brown beetle that, in the adult stages, feeds on ripe figs and other fruit. Grub will feed until the temperature begins to drop in autumn. Adults emerge from pupae in about 3 weeks. Scarab beetles generally lay their eggs in the ground, in dung, or in other decomposing materials including carrion. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York. After pupating, an adult emerge, and there you have your beetle. The River Bug on the Black Sea at midsummer brings down some thin membranes that look like berries out of which burst a four-legged caterpillar in the manner of the creature mentioned above, but it does not live beyond one day, owing to which it is called the hemerobius. Within 13 (a 13-year-old cicada) or 17 years (a 17-year-old cicada) in the soil, the mature nymphs emerge and climb right onto some vertical surface or nearby vegetation. Adult beetles are nocturnal bugs and do not appear during the day, making detection difficult. Since the adults are attracted to trees to feed, they tend to lay most eggs in the higher portions of sod near wooded areas. These white grubs are laid in midsummer in sunny areas of the lawn . During the spring, damage is more apparent than root damage during the fall. It then enters into the ‘pupal stage’ which can take up to 9 months and usually happens over the winter period. John Wiley and Sons. In the late summer and fall of their third year (or second year in the case of Phyllophaga tristis), larvae begin pupating in the soil. This is how the grub gets bigger, and it typically happens over the course of two years, depending on the life cycle length of the species. In late March and April, grubs move back up to the surface of the soil. 126-128. Larvae: The length of the larvae varies from 20 to 45 mm. Larvae which pupate early enough will emerge in late in the summer. An understanding to the life cycle of this insect will be of importance to those responsible for its elimination and control. Tashiro H. 1973. The pupa is usually white, faint yellow, or dark brown in color. C. Brown Company. Larvae:The length of the larvae varies from 20 to 45 mm. Destructive and Useful Insects: Their Habits and Control. At this stage, it’s possible to have both adults and larvae feeding on your lawn and if the problem is ignored, dead lawn patches quickly appear. Observing Japanese beetles feeding on plants is quite common since the adult beetle feeds on about 300 species of trees, shrubs, ornamental, and fruit trees, in … The larval stage is when June bugs are the most harmful to lawns and gardens. Adult Japanese beetles (June bugs) typically lay eggs in lawns in June. June bugs, also called May or June beetles, go through a life cycle that spans one to three years. During the first stage of growth the grubs feed on the roots of the grass in the lawn. Parasitic wasp larva feeding externally on white grub, Phyllophaga spp. The grubs burrow deep underground to survive the winter. Oregon State Monograph Studies in Entomology 4: 1-219. A pelecinid wasp, a natural enemy of white grubs, Phyllophaga spp. As adult beetles, we swarm in great numbers in early summer, usually at dark and are strongly attracted to lights.. What I eat: As a larva, I live underground and eat the roots of grasses and other plants. June Bug. Grubs are the larval stage of the European chafer, June beetle (June bug) and/or Japanese beetle. 1979. During the first stage of growth the grubs feed on the roots of the grass in the lawn. Take a look at the life cycle and characteristics of this mini-beast, and also read some interesting facts about it. The larvae will molt twice before winter. They can be used to control a broad range of soil-inhabiting insects and above-ground insects in their soil-inhabiting stage of life. Also, Cordyceps fungus infects the grubs. Some species of larvae need more than one year to develop, so they hibernate in the soil again once the weather drops in the autumn. Like it? 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